Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter, energy, forces, motion, heat, light, sound, electricity, magnetism, and other natural phenomena. Physics helps us to understand how the world works and how we can use its principles to solve problems, invent new technologies, and explore the universe.

If you are a student in form 1, you might be wondering what are the topics that you need to learn in physics. You might also be looking for a way to download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format so that you can revise and practice your skills. In this article, we will provide you with an overview of the main topics covered in physics form 1, as well as some sources and steps to download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format.

## Physics Form 1 Topics

The following are some of the major topics that you will learn in physics form 1. Each topic has subtopics that cover specific concepts, formulas, experiments, calculations, diagrams, graphs, tables, etc. You will also find some sample questions and answers for each topic to help you test your understanding.

### Measurement 1

This topic introduces you to the basic concepts of measurement in physics. You will learn about:

#### Units and dimensions

Units are standard quantities that are used to measure physical quantities. For example, meter (m) is a unit of length, kilogram (kg) is a unit of mass, second (s) is a unit of time, etc. Dimensions are the powers to which the base units are raised to express a physical quantity. For example, speed has the dimension of length/time or [L/T], force has the dimension of mass*length/time^2 or [M*L/T^2], etc.

Some sample questions are:

• What is the SI unit of temperature?
• What is the dimension of energy?
• Convert.

Convert 50 cm to m.

• What is the difference between a scalar and a vector quantity?

• The SI unit of temperature is kelvin (K).
• The dimension of energy is [M*L^2/T^2].
• 50 cm = 0.5 m.
• A scalar quantity is a physical quantity that has only magnitude, while a vector quantity is a physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

#### Measuring instruments and errors

This subtopic teaches you how to use different instruments to measure physical quantities, such as length, mass, time, temperature, etc. You will also learn about the types and sources of errors that can affect the accuracy and precision of your measurements, and how to reduce or correct them.

Some sample questions are:

• What instrument is used to measure mass?
• What is the difference between systematic and random errors?
• How can you find the percentage error of a measurement?

• An instrument that is used to measure mass is a balance.
• Systematic errors are errors that are consistent and predictable, and are caused by faulty instruments, methods, or assumptions. Random errors are errors that are unpredictable and vary from trial to trial, and are caused by human mistakes, environmental factors, or fluctuations in the instruments.
• You can find the percentage error of a measurement by using the formula: percentage error = (|experimental value – true value| / true value) * 100%.

#### Scalars and vectors

This subtopic introduces you to the concept of scalars and vectors, which are two types of physical quantities. You will learn how to represent vectors graphically and algebraically, how to add and subtract vectors using different methods, and how to find the resultant and equilibrant of a system of vectors.

Some sample questions are:

• Give two examples of scalar quantities and two examples of vector quantities.
• How can you find the magnitude and direction of a vector?
• What is the parallelogram law of vector addition?

• Two examples of scalar quantities are speed and distance. Two examples of vector quantities are displacement and force.
• You can find the magnitude of a vector by using Pythagoras’ theorem or trigonometry, depending on the given information. You can find the direction of a vector by using trigonometry or geometry, depending on the given information.
• The parallelogram law of vector addition states that if two vectors are represented by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then their resultant is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram that passes through their common point.

### Pressure

This topic introduces you to the concept of pressure, which is the force per unit area exerted by a fluid or a solid on a surface. You will learn about:

#### Atmospheric pressure and barometer

This subtopic explains what atmospheric pressure is, how it varies with altitude and weather conditions, and how it affects living things. You will also learn how to measure atmospheric pressure using a device called a barometer, which can be either mercury-based or aneroid-based.

Some sample questions are:

• What is atmospheric pressure?
• How does atmospheric pressure change with altitude?
• How does a mercury barometer work?

• Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of the air above a given point on the earth’s surface.
• Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, because there is less air above a higher point than a lower point.
• A mercury barometer works by balancing the atmospheric pressure with the pressure exerted by a column of mercury in a glass tube. The height of the mercury column indicates the atmospheric pressure.

#### Liquid pressure and Pascal’s principle

This subtopic explains what liquid pressure is, how it varies with depth and density, and how it affects submerged objects. You will also learn about Pascal’s principle, which states that the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid and its container.

Some sample questions are:

• What is liquid pressure?
• How does liquid pressure change with depth?
• What is an What is an example of Pascal’s principle in action?

• Liquid pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid on any point in contact with it.
• Liquid pressure increases with increasing depth, because there is more liquid above a deeper point than a shallower point.
• An example of Pascal’s principle in action is a hydraulic lift, which uses a small force applied to a small piston to produce a large force on a large piston, by transmitting the pressure through an enclosed liquid.

#### Gas pressure and Boyle’s law

This subtopic explains what gas pressure is, how it varies with temperature and volume, and how it affects balloons, bubbles, and other objects. You will also learn about Boyle’s law, which states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its volume.

Some sample questions are:

• What is gas pressure?
• How does gas pressure change with temperature?
• What is the formula for Boyle’s law?

• Gas pressure is the pressure exerted by the collisions of gas molecules with the walls of their container or any surface in contact with them.
• Gas pressure increases with increasing temperature, because the gas molecules move faster and collide more frequently and forcefully with the walls of their container or any surface in contact with them.
• The formula for Boyle’s law is P1V1 = P2V2, where P1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume of the gas, and P2 and V2 are the final pressure and volume of the gas.

### Force

This topic introduces you to the concept of force, which is a push or a pull that can change the state of motion or shape of an object. You will learn about:

#### Types of forces and their effects

This subtopic teaches you about the different types of forces that exist in nature, such as gravitational force, frictional force, normal force, tension force, elastic force, electrostatic force, magnetic force, etc. You will also learn about the effects of forces on objects, such as causing acceleration, deceleration, change in direction, deformation, etc.

Some sample questions are:

• What is gravitational force?
• What is frictional force?
• What is the effect of a net force on an object?

• Gravitational force is the force of attraction between two objects that have mass. The magnitude of the gravitational force depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
• Frictional force is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency to move of two surfaces in contact with each other. The magnitude of the frictional force depends on the nature and roughness of the surfaces and the normal force between them.
• The effect of a net force on an object is to change its state of motion or shape. A net force can cause an object to accelerate, decelerate, change direction, or deform.

#### Newton’s laws of motion and applications

This subtopic explains the three laws of motion formulated by Isaac Newton, which describe how forces affect the motion of objects. You will also learn how to apply these laws to various situations involving forces and motion.

Some sample questions are:

• What is Newton’s first law of motion?
• What is Newton’s second law of motion?
• What is Newton’s third law of motion?

• Newton’s first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue in motion with constant speed and direction, unless acted upon by a net external force.
• Newton’s second law of motion states that the net external force acting on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration. The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the net external force.
• Newton’s third law of motion states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. The action and reaction forces act on different objects and are of the same type.

#### Equilibrium of forces and moments

This subtopic teaches you how to analyze situations where an object or a system of objects is in equilibrium, which means that there is no net external force or torque acting on it. You will learn how to You will learn how to apply the conditions of equilibrium, which are that the sum of the forces and the sum of the torques in any direction must be zero. You will also learn how to calculate the moments of forces, which are the products of the forces and their perpendicular distances from a pivot point.

Some sample questions are:

• What is a moment of a force?
• What are the conditions of equilibrium for a rigid body?
• How can you find the unknown force or distance in an equilibrium problem?

• A moment of a force is a measure of the tendency of the force to rotate an object about a pivot point. It is equal to the force times its perpendicular distance from the pivot point.
• The conditions of equilibrium for a rigid body are that the sum of the forces in any direction must be zero, and the sum of the torques in any direction must be zero.
• You can find the unknown force or distance in an equilibrium problem by using the equations of equilibrium, which are derived from the conditions of equilibrium. You can also use trigonometry or geometry to find the angles or lengths involved.

### Particulate Nature of Matter

This topic introduces you to the concept of matter, which is anything that has mass and occupies space. You will learn about:

#### States of matter and kinetic theory

This subtopic explains the three common states of matter, which are solid, liquid, and gas. You will also learn about the kinetic theory of matter, which states that matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly moving and colliding with each other.

Some sample questions are:

• What are the main characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases?
• What is the kinetic energy of a particle?
• What is the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy?

• The main characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases are:
• Solids have fixed shape and volume, strong intermolecular forces, and low kinetic energy.
• Liquids have variable shape but fixed volume, moderate intermolecular forces, and moderate kinetic energy.
• Gases have variable shape and volume, weak intermolecular forces, and high kinetic energy.
• The kinetic energy of a particle is the energy that it has due to its motion. It is equal to half its mass times its speed squared.
• The relationship between temperature and kinetic energy is that temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. The higher the temperature, the higher the average kinetic energy.

#### Diffusion and Brownian motion

This subtopic explains what diffusion and Brownian motion are, how they occur, and what factors affect them. Diffusion is the process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Brownian motion is the random and erratic movement of particles in a fluid due to collisions with other particles.

Some sample questions are:

• What is an example of diffusion in everyday life?
• What is an example of Brownian motion in everyday life?
• What factors affect the rate of diffusion?

• An example of diffusion in everyday life is the spreading of perfume in a room.
• An example of Brownian motion in everyday life is An example of Brownian motion in everyday life is the movement of dust particles in a beam of sunlight.
• Some factors that affect the rate of diffusion are:
• The concentration gradient, which is the difference in concentration between two areas. The higher the concentration gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
• The temperature, which affects the kinetic energy of the particles. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of diffusion.
• The size and shape of the particles, which affect how easily they can move through a medium. The smaller and more spherical the particles, the faster the rate of diffusion.
• The nature and state of the medium, which affect how much space and resistance there is for the particles to move. The less dense and more fluid the medium, the faster the rate of diffusion.

#### Molecular structure and bonding

This subtopic explains how atoms and molecules are arranged and held together in different states of matter. You will learn about the types and properties of molecular structures, such as simple molecular, giant covalent, giant ionic, and metallic structures. You will also learn about the types and properties of intermolecular forces, such as van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonds.

Some sample questions are:

• What is a simple molecular structure?
• What is a giant covalent structure?
• What is a hydrogen bond?

• A simple molecular structure is a structure where atoms are held together by covalent bonds to form small molecules, which are then held together by weak intermolecular forces. Examples of simple molecular structures are water, carbon dioxide, and methane.
• A giant covalent structure is a structure where atoms are held together by covalent bonds to form a large network of atoms. Examples of giant covalent structures are diamond, graphite, and silicon dioxide.
• A hydrogen bond is a type of intermolecular force that occurs when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom (such as oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine) is attracted to another electronegative atom on a different molecule. Examples of substances that have hydrogen bonds are water, ammonia, and DNA.

### Thermal Expansion

This topic introduces you to the concept of thermal expansion, which is the increase in size or volume of a substance when it is heated. You will learn about:

#### Linear, area and volume expansion of solids

This subtopic explains how solids expand when they are heated in one dimension (length), two dimensions (area), or three dimensions (volume). You will also learn how to calculate the amount of expansion or contraction using the coefficients of linear, area, or volume expansion.

Some sample questions are:

• What is linear expansion?
• What is area expansion?
• What is volume expansion?

• Linear expansion is the increase in length of a solid when it is heated. It can be calculated using the formula: ΔL = αLΔT, where ΔL is the change in length, α is the coefficient of linear expansion, L is the original length, and ΔT is the change in temperature.
• Area expansion is Area expansion is the increase in area of a solid when it is heated. It can be calculated using the formula: ΔA = βAΔT, where ΔA is the change in area, β is the coefficient of area expansion, A is the original area, and ΔT is the change in temperature.
• Volume expansion is the increase in volume of a solid when it is heated. It can be calculated using the formula: ΔV = γVΔT, where ΔV is the change in volume, γ is the coefficient of volume expansion, V is the original volume, and ΔT is the change in temperature.

#### Expansion of liquids and anomalous expansion of water

This subtopic explains how liquids expand when they are heated, and how their expansion depends on their container. You will also learn about the anomalous expansion of water, which is the unusual behavior of water that causes it to expand when it is cooled below 4°C.

Some sample questions are:

• What is apparent expansion of a liquid?
• What is real expansion of a liquid?
• What is the anomalous expansion of water?

• Apparent expansion of a liquid is the increase in volume of a liquid when it is heated in a container. It can be calculated using the formula: ΔV = (γ – α)VΔT, where ΔV is the change in volume, γ is the coefficient of volume expansion of the liquid, α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the container, V is the original volume, and ΔT is the change in temperature.
• Real expansion of a liquid is the increase in volume of a liquid when it is heated in an open container. It can be calculated using the formula: ΔV = γVΔT, where ΔV is the change in volume, γ is the coefficient of volume expansion of the liquid, V is the original volume, and ΔT is the change in temperature.
• The anomalous expansion of water is the phenomenon that causes water to expand when it is cooled below 4°C. This happens because water has a maximum density at 4°C, and below that temperature, its molecules form a more open structure due to hydrogen bonding. This makes water less dense and more voluminous as it freezes.

#### Expansion of gases and gas laws

This subtopic explains how gases expand when they are heated, and how their expansion depends on their pressure and volume. You will also learn about the gas laws, which are mathematical relationships that describe how pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas affect each other.

Some sample questions are:

• What is Charles’ law?
• What is Boyle’s law?

• Charles’ law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. It can be expressed as: V/T = k, where V is the volume, T is the absolute temperature, and k is a constant. It can also be written as: V1/T1 = V2/T2, where V1 and T1 are the initial volume and temperature of the gas, and V2 and T2 are the final volume and temperature of the gas.
• Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its volume. It can be expressed as: PV = k, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, and k is a constant. It can also be written as: P1V1 = P2V2, where P1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume of the gas, and P2 and V2 are the final pressure and volume of the gas.
• Avogadro’s law states that the volume of a gas at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. It can be expressed as: V/n = k, where V is the volume, n is the number of moles, and k is a constant. It can also be written as: V1/n1 = V2/n2, where V1 and n1 are the initial volume and number of moles of gas, and V2 and n2 are the final volume and number of moles of gas.

If you want to download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format, you might be wondering why you should do so, where you can find them, and how you can download them. In this section, we will answer these questions for you.

Downloading physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format has many benefits for you as a student. Here are some of them:

#### Easy access and convenience

By downloading physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format, you can access them anytime and anywhere on your computer, tablet, or smartphone. You don’t need to carry heavy textbooks or notebooks with you. You can also print them out if you prefer to study on paper.

#### Exam preparation and confidence building

By downloading physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format, you can prepare yourself for your exams. You can familiarize yourself with the format, style, difficulty level, and marking scheme of the exam questions. You can also boost your confidence by solving different types of questions and checking your progress.

### Sources of physics form 1 questions and answers PDF

There are many sources where you can find physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format. Here are some of them:

#### Online platforms and websites

There are many online platforms and websites that offer physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format for free or for a fee. Some examples are:

Some examples of online platforms and websites that offer physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format are:

• [Esoma-KE](^1^), which provides form one physics revision questions and answers for free, covering all the topics in the syllabus. You can access the questions and answers by clicking on the links for each topic, and download them by clicking on the download button at the bottom of each page.
• [Teacher.co.ke](^2^), which offers physics topic by topic questions and answers for all topics for form 1, form 2, form 3, and form 4. You can download the questions and answers by clicking on the links for each topic, which will open a PDF file that you can save or print.
• [EasyElimu](^3^), which has physics form 1 topical revision questions and answers for the preparation of local and KCSE exams. You can download the questions and answers by clicking on the links for each topic, which will open a PDF file that you can save or print.

#### Teachers and tutors

Another source of physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format is your teachers or tutors. They might have prepared some questions and answers for you to practice or revise, or they might have access to some resources that they can share with you. Some tips to get physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format from your teachers or tutors are:

• Ask them politely and respectfully if they have any questions and answers that they can give you or recommend to you.
• Thank them for their help and feedback, and show them your appreciation and gratitude.

#### Past papers and mock exams

A third source of physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format is past papers and mock exams. These are previous or simulated exam papers that contain questions and answers that are similar to what you might encounter in your actual exams. They can help you to familiarize yourself with the exam format, style, difficulty level, and marking scheme, as well as to test your knowledge, skills, and readiness. Some links to download past papers and mock exams for physics form 1 are:

• [KCPE Past Papers](https://www.kcse-online.info/kcpe-past-papers/), which contains past papers for KCPE exams from 2000 to 2019, with marking schemes. You can download the papers by clicking on the links for each year, which will open a PDF file that you can save or print.
• [KCSE Past Papers](https://www.kcse-online.info/kcse-past-papers/), which contains past papers for KCSE exams from 1995 to 2019, with marking schemes. You can download the papers by clicking on the links for each year, which will open a PDF file that you can save or print.
• [KNEC Past Papers](https://www.knec.ac.ke/past-papers/), which contains past papers for various national exams administered by KNEC, such as KCPE, KCSE, PTE, ECDE, DTE, etc. You can download the papers by selecting the exam type, year, subject, paper number, and paper code from the drop-down menus, which will open a PDF file that you can save or print.

The following are some general steps to download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format from any of the sources mentioned above:

2. Navigate to the section or page that contains the questions and answers that you want to download.
4. A new tab or window will open with the PDF file of the questions and answers.
5. Click on the download icon or option on the top right corner of the PDF file.
6. Select a location on your device where you want to save the PDF file.
8. You can now access the PDF file of the physics form 1 questions and answers from your device anytime you want.

Here are some screenshots to illustrate these steps using one of the sources as an example:

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## Conclusion

In this article, we have provided you with an overview of the main topics covered in physics form 1, as well as some sources and steps to download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format. We hope that this article has been helpful and informative for you, and that you have learned something new and useful.

If you want to improve your physics skills, knowledge, and performance, we highly recommend that you download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format from any of the sources mentioned above, and use them for your revision and practice purposes. You will find that they are very helpful and beneficial for your exam preparation and confidence building.

So, what are you waiting for? Download physics form 1 questions and answers in PDF format today, and start studying and practicing physics like a pro!